进程管理工具pstree,ps, top, pidof, pgrep, uptime

进程查看基本工具:pstree, ps, top, pidof, pgrep, uptime,htop

pstree查看进程树,linux系统上除init以外的所有子进程,都是由其父进程fork自身儿俩,遵循cow机制,进程展示位进程树
[root@localhost ~]# pstree

init─┬─NetworkManager─┬─dhclient
│ └─{NetworkManager}
├─abrtd
├─acpid
├─atd
├─auditd───{auditd}
├─automount───4*[{automount}]
├─bluetoothd
├─crond
├─cupsd
├─dbus-daemon
├─hald─┬─hald-runner─┬─hald-addon-acpi
│ │ ├─hald-addon-inpu
│ │ └─hald-addon-rfki
│ └─{hald}
├─master─┬─pickup
│ └─qmgr
├─6*[mingetty]
├─modem-manager
├─rpc.statd
├─rpcbind
├─rsyslogd───3*[{rsyslogd}]
├─sshd───sshd───bash───pstree
├─udevd───2*[udevd]
└─wpa_supplicant
显示进程pid
[root@localhost ~]# pstree -p
init(1)─┬─NetworkManager(1363)─┬─dhclient(1416)
│ └─{NetworkManager}(1418)
├─abrtd(1759)
├─acpid(1451)
├─atd(1786)
├─auditd(1246)───{auditd}(1247)
├─automount(1564)─┬─{automount}(1565)
│ ├─{automount}(1566)
│ ├─{automount}(1569)
│ └─{automount}(1572)
├─bluetoothd(1593)
├─crond(1772)
├─cupsd(1421)
├─dbus-daemon(1352)
├─hald(1461)─┬─hald-runner(1462)─┬─hald-addon-acpi(+
│ │ ├─hald-addon-inpu(+
│ │ └─hald-addon-rfki(+
│ └─{hald}(1463)
├─master(1733)─┬─pickup(12632)
│ └─qmgr(1758)
├─mingetty(1812)
├─mingetty(1814)
├─mingetty(1816)
├─mingetty(1818)
├─mingetty(1820)
├─mingetty(1822)
├─modem-manager(1368)
├─rpc.statd(1384)
├─rpcbind(1321)
├─rsyslogd(1276)─┬─{rsyslogd}(1277)
│ ├─{rsyslogd}(1279)
│ └─{rsyslogd}(1280)
├─sshd(1626)───sshd(1823)───bash(1826)───pstree(128+
├─udevd(406)─┬─udevd(882)
│ └─udevd(883)
└─wpa_supplicant(1422)
[root@localhost ~]#
process state
linux运行中的内核的相关信息是通过/proc伪文件系统输出的:各进程都有一个以其PID命名的子目录,每个字目录中有许多存储了进程的相关状态信息

PS:
显示的是PS命令执行时,系统上当前进程状态信息的快照,所以,为静态

支持众多选项:分为两种风格,
bsd风格
sysv风格

根据进程启动时是否通过终端上的接口交互式启动的,进程可分为两类
与终端相关的进程:a
与终端无关的进程:x
与终端相关的进程:a
[root@localhost ~]# ps a
PID TTY STAT TIME COMMAND
1812 tty1 Ss+ 0:00 /sbin/mingetty /dev/tty1
1814 tty2 Ss+ 0:00 /sbin/mingetty /dev/tty2
1816 tty3 Ss+ 0:00 /sbin/mingetty /dev/tty3
1818 tty4 Ss+ 0:00 /sbin/mingetty /dev/tty4
1820 tty5 Ss+ 0:00 /sbin/mingetty /dev/tty5
1822 tty6 Ss+ 0:00 /sbin/mingetty /dev/tty6
1826 pts/0 Ss 0:00 -bash
12873 pts/0 R+ 0:00 ps a
[root@localhost ~]#
与终端无关的进程:x
[root@localhost ~]# ps x
PID TTY STAT TIME COMMAND
1 ? Ss 0:01 /sbin/init
2 ? S 0:00 [kthreadd]
3 ? S 0:00 [migration/0]
4 ? S 0:00 [ksoftirqd/0]
5 ? S 0:00 [stopper/0]
6 ? S 0:00 [watchdog/0]
7 ? S 0:11 [events/0]
8 ? S 0:00 [cgroup]
9 ? S 0:00 [khelper]
10 ? S 0:00 [netns]
11 ? S 0:00 [async/mgr]
12 ? S 0:00 [pm]
13 ? S 0:00 [sync_supers]
14 ? S 0:00 [bdi-default]
15 ? S 0:00 [kintegrityd/0]
16 ? S 0:11 [kblockd/0]
17 ? S 0:00 [kacpid]
18 ? S 0:00 [kacpi_notify]
19 ? S 0:00 [kacpi_hotplug]
20 ? S 0:00 [ata_aux]
21 ? S 0:00 [ata_sff/0]
22 ? S 0:00 [ksuspend_usbd]
23 ? S 0:00 [khubd]
24 ? S 0:00 [kseriod]
25 ? S 0:00 [md/0]
26 ? S 0:00 [md_misc/0]
27 ? S 0:00 [linkwatch]
29 ? S 0:00 [khungtaskd]
30 ? S 0:00 [kswapd0]
31 ? SN 0:00 [ksmd]
32 ? S 0:00 [aio/0]
33 ? S 0:00 [crypto/0]
41 ? S 0:00 [kthrotld/0]
42 ? S 0:00 [pciehpd]
44 ? S 0:00 [kpsmoused]
45 ? S 0:00 [usbhid_resumer]
46 ? S 0:00 [deferwq]
78 ? S 0:00 [kdmremove]
79 ? S 0:00 [kstriped]
153 ? S 0:00 [scsi_eh_0]
154 ? S 0:00 [scsi_eh_1]
162 ? S 0:02 [mpt_poll_0]
163 ? S 0:00 [mpt/0]
164 ? S 0:00 [scsi_eh_2]
301 ? S 0:00 [kdmflush]
303 ? S 0:00 [kdmflush]
320 ? S 0:00 [jbd2/dm-0-8]
321 ? S 0:00 [ext4-dio-unwrit]
406 ? S<s 0:00 /sbin/udevd -d
808 ? S 0:00 [bluetooth]
815 ? S 0:00 [vmmemctl]
882 ? S< 0:00 /sbin/udevd -d
883 ? S< 0:00 /sbin/udevd -d
895 ? S 0:00 [kdmflush]
897 ? S 0:00 [kdmflush]
954 ? S 0:00 [jbd2/sda1-8]
955 ? S 0:00 [ext4-dio-unwrit]
956 ? S 0:00 [jbd2/dm-2-8]
957 ? S 0:00 [ext4-dio-unwrit]
958 ? S 0:00 [jbd2/dm-3-8]
959 ? S 0:00 [ext4-dio-unwrit]
1004 ? S 0:00 [kauditd]
1019 ? S 0:00 [flush-253:3]
1246 ? S<sl 0:00 auditd
1276 ? Sl 0:00 /sbin/rsyslogd -i /var/run/syslog
1363 ? Ssl 0:00 NetworkManager --pid-file=/var/ru
1368 ? S 0:00 /usr/sbin/modem-manager
1416 ? S 0:00 /sbin/dhclient -d -4 -sf /usr/lib
1421 ? Ss 0:00 cupsd -C /etc/cups/cupsd.conf
1422 ? Ss 0:00 /usr/sbin/wpa_supplicant -c /etc/
1451 ? Ss 0:00 /usr/sbin/acpid
1462 ? S 0:00 hald-runner
1497 ? S 0:00 /usr/libexec/hald-addon-rfkill-ki
1515 ? S 0:00 hald-addon-input: Listening on /d
1564 ? Ssl 0:00 automount --pid-file /var/run/aut
1593 ? S<s 0:00 /usr/sbin/bluetoothd --udev
1626 ? Ss 0:00 /usr/sbin/sshd
1675 ? S< 0:00 [krfcommd]
1733 ? Ss 0:00 /usr/libexec/postfix/master
1759 ? Ss 0:00 /usr/sbin/abrtd
1772 ? Ss 0:00 crond
1786 ? Ss 0:00 /usr/sbin/atd
1812 tty1 Ss+ 0:00 /sbin/mingetty /dev/tty1
1814 tty2 Ss+ 0:00 /sbin/mingetty /dev/tty2
1816 tty3 Ss+ 0:00 /sbin/mingetty /dev/tty3
1818 tty4 Ss+ 0:00 /sbin/mingetty /dev/tty4
1820 tty5 Ss+ 0:00 /sbin/mingetty /dev/tty5
1822 tty6 Ss+ 0:00 /sbin/mingetty /dev/tty6
1823 ? Ss 0:00 sshd: root@pts/0
1826 pts/0 Ss 0:00 -bash
12852 ? S 0:00 [flush-253:0]
12874 pts/0 R+ 0:00 ps x
[root@localhost ~]#
以用户为中心,组织进程状态信息显示:u
组合选项:axu
[root@localhost ~]# ps u
USER PID %CPU %MEM VSZ RSS TTY STAT START
root 1812 0.0 0.1 4064 536 tty1 Ss+ 08:18
root 1814 0.0 0.1 4064 544 tty2 Ss+ 08:18
root 1816 0.0 0.1 4064 540 tty3 Ss+ 08:18
root 1818 0.0 0.1 4064 540 tty4 Ss+ 08:18
root 1820 0.0 0.1 4064 544 tty5 Ss+ 08:18
root 1822 0.0 0.1 4064 544 tty6 Ss+ 08:18
root 1826 0.0 0.3 108340 1828 pts/0 Ss 08:19
root 12885 1.0 0.2 110236 1120 pts/0 R+ 11:34
[root@localhost ~]#

USER 属主
PID 进程id号
%CPU cpu
%MEM 内存
VSZ 虚拟内存集,线性地址空间中占用的空间大小
RSS 常驻内存集,指不可以被交换至swap空间的数据占据空间大小;
TTY
STAT
|||
进程状态:r:running,运行状态
s:interruptible sleeping,可中断睡眠
d:uniterruptible sleeping,不可中断睡眠
t: stopped
z: zombie

s: session leader
+: 前台进程,占据着某终端
l: 多线程进程
<:高优先级进程
N:低优先级进程

START:启动时间
TIME :占据CPU累计时长
COMMAND :启动当前进程或线程的命令行程序,带[]为内核线程
常用组合选项2:-ef
-e:显示所有进程
-f: 显示丰富格式信息
ppid:副进程id号

[root@localhost ~]# ps -e
PID TTY TIME CMD
1 ? 00:00:01 init
2 ? 00:00:00 kthreadd
3 ? 00:00:00 migration/0
4 ? 00:00:00 ksoftirqd/0
5 ? 00:00:00 stopper/0
6 ? 00:00:00 watchdog/0
7 ? 00:00:12 events/0
8 ? 00:00:00 cgroup
9 ? 00:00:00 khelper
10 ? 00:00:00 netns
11 ? 00:00:00 async/mgr
12 ? 00:00:00 pm
13 ? 00:00:00 sync_supers
14 ? 00:00:00 bdi-default
15 ? 00:00:00 kintegrityd/0
16 ? 00:00:11 kblockd/0
17 ? 00:00:00 kacpid
18 ? 00:00:00 kacpi_notify
19 ? 00:00:00 kacpi_hotplug
20 ? 00:00:00 ata_aux
21 ? 00:00:00 ata_sff/0
22 ? 00:00:00 ksuspend_usbd
23 ? 00:00:00 khubd
24 ? 00:00:00 kseriod
25 ? 00:00:00 md/0
26 ? 00:00:00 md_misc/0
27 ? 00:00:00 linkwatch
29 ? 00:00:00 khungtaskd
30 ? 00:00:00 kswapd0
31 ? 00:00:00 ksmd
32 ? 00:00:00 aio/0
33 ? 00:00:00 crypto/0
41 ? 00:00:00 kthrotld/0
42 ? 00:00:00 pciehpd
44 ? 00:00:00 kpsmoused
45 ? 00:00:00 usbhid_resumer
46 ? 00:00:00 deferwq
78 ? 00:00:00 kdmremove
79 ? 00:00:00 kstriped
153 ? 00:00:00 scsi_eh_0
154 ? 00:00:00 scsi_eh_1
162 ? 00:00:02 mpt_poll_0
163 ? 00:00:00 mpt/0
164 ? 00:00:00 scsi_eh_2
301 ? 00:00:00 kdmflush
303 ? 00:00:00 kdmflush
320 ? 00:00:00 jbd2/dm-0-8
321 ? 00:00:00 ext4-dio-unwrit
406 ? 00:00:00 udevd
808 ? 00:00:00 bluetooth
815 ? 00:00:00 vmmemctl
882 ? 00:00:00 udevd
883 ? 00:00:00 udevd
895 ? 00:00:00 kdmflush
897 ? 00:00:00 kdmflush
954 ? 00:00:00 jbd2/sda1-8
955 ? 00:00:00 ext4-dio-unwrit
956 ? 00:00:00 jbd2/dm-2-8
957 ? 00:00:00 ext4-dio-unwrit
958 ? 00:00:00 jbd2/dm-3-8
959 ? 00:00:00 ext4-dio-unwrit
1004 ? 00:00:00 kauditd
1019 ? 00:00:00 flush-253:3
1246 ? 00:00:00 auditd
1276 ? 00:00:00 rsyslogd
1321 ? 00:00:02 rpcbind
1352 ? 00:00:00 dbus-daemon
1363 ? 00:00:00 NetworkManager
1368 ? 00:00:00 modem-manager
1384 ? 00:00:00 rpc.statd
1416 ? 00:00:00 dhclient
1421 ? 00:00:00 cupsd
1422 ? 00:00:00 wpa_supplicant
1451 ? 00:00:00 acpid
1461 ? 00:00:00 hald
1462 ? 00:00:00 hald-runner
1497 ? 00:00:00 hald-addon-rfki
1515 ? 00:00:00 hald-addon-inpu
1533 ? 00:00:00 hald-addon-acpi
1564 ? 00:00:00 automount
1593 ? 00:00:00 bluetoothd
1626 ? 00:00:00 sshd
1675 ? 00:00:00 krfcommd
1733 ? 00:00:00 master
1758 ? 00:00:00 qmgr
1759 ? 00:00:00 abrtd
1772 ? 00:00:00 crond
1786 ? 00:00:00 atd
1812 tty1 00:00:00 mingetty
1814 tty2 00:00:00 mingetty
1816 tty3 00:00:00 mingetty
1818 tty4 00:00:00 mingetty
1820 tty5 00:00:00 mingetty
1822 tty6 00:00:00 mingetty
1823 ? 00:00:00 sshd
1826 pts/0 00:00:00 bash
12894 ? 00:00:00 pickup
12926 pts/0 00:00:00 ps
[root@localhost ~]#

[root@localhost ~]# ps -f
UID PID PPID C STIME TTY TIME CMD
root 1826 1823 0 08:19 pts/0 00:00:00 -bash
root 12927 1826 0 11:50 pts/0 00:00:00 ps -f
[root@localhost ~]# ps -ef
UID PID PPID C STIME TTY TIME CMD
root 1 0 0 08:18 ? 00:00:01 /sbin/init
root 2 0 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [kthreadd]
root 3 2 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [migration/]
root 4 2 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [ksoftirqd/]
root 5 2 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [stopper/0]
root 6 2 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [watchdog/0]
root 7 2 0 08:18 ? 00:00:12 [events/0]
root 8 2 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [cgroup]
root 9 2 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [khelper]
root 10 2 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [netns]
root 11 2 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [async/mgr]
root 12 2 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [pm]
root 13 2 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [sync_super]
root 14 2 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [bdi-defaul]
root 15 2 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [kintegrity]
root 16 2 0 08:18 ? 00:00:11 [kblockd/0]
root 17 2 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [kacpid]
root 18 2 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [kacpi_noti]
root 19 2 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [kacpi_hotp]
root 20 2 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [ata_aux]
root 21 2 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [ata_sff/0]
root 22 2 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [ksuspend_u]
root 23 2 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [khubd]
root 24 2 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [kseriod]
root 25 2 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [md/0]
root 26 2 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [md_misc/0]
root 27 2 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [linkwatch]
root 29 2 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [khungtaskd]
root 30 2 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [kswapd0]
root 31 2 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [ksmd]
root 32 2 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [aio/0]
root 33 2 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [crypto/0]
root 41 2 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [kthrotld/0]
root 42 2 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [pciehpd]
root 44 2 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [kpsmoused]
root 45 2 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [usbhid_res]
root 46 2 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [deferwq]
root 78 2 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [kdmremove]
root 79 2 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [kstriped]
root 153 2 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [scsi_eh_0]
root 154 2 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [scsi_eh_1]
root 162 2 0 08:18 ? 00:00:02 [mpt_poll_0]
root 163 2 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [mpt/0]
root 164 2 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [scsi_eh_2]
root 301 2 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [kdmflush]
root 303 2 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [kdmflush]
root 320 2 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [jbd2/dm-0-]
root 321 2 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [ext4-dio-u]
root 406 1 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 /sbin/udevd
root 808 2 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [bluetooth]
root 815 2 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [vmmemctl]
root 882 406 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 /sbin/udevd
root 883 406 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 /sbin/udevd
root 895 2 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [kdmflush]
root 897 2 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [kdmflush]
root 954 2 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [jbd2/sda1-]
root 955 2 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [ext4-dio-u]
root 956 2 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [jbd2/dm-2-]
root 957 2 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [ext4-dio-u]
root 958 2 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [jbd2/dm-3-]
root 959 2 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [ext4-dio-u]
root 1004 2 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [kauditd]
root 1019 2 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [flush-253:]
root 1246 1 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 auditd
root 1276 1 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 /sbin/rsyslo
rpc 1321 1 0 08:18 ? 00:00:02 rpcbind
dbus 1352 1 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 dbus-daemon
root 1363 1 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 NetworkManag
root 1368 1 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 /usr/sbin/mo
rpcuser 1384 1 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 rpc.statd
root 1416 1363 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 /sbin/dhclie
root 1421 1 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 cupsd -C /et
root 1422 1 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 /usr/sbin/wp
root 1451 1 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 /usr/sbin/ac
68 1461 1 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 hald
root 1462 1461 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 hald-runner
root 1497 1462 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 /usr/libexec
root 1515 1462 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 hald-addon-i
68 1533 1462 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 hald-addon-a
root 1564 1 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 automount --
root 1593 1 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 /usr/sbin/bl
root 1626 1 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 /usr/sbin/ss
root 1675 2 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [krfcommd]
root 1733 1 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 /usr/libexec
postfix 1758 1733 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 qmgr -l -t f
root 1759 1 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 /usr/sbin/ab
root 1772 1 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 crond
root 1786 1 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 /usr/sbin/at
root 1812 1 0 08:18 tty1 00:00:00 /sbin/minget
root 1814 1 0 08:18 tty2 00:00:00 /sbin/minget
root 1816 1 0 08:18 tty3 00:00:00 /sbin/minget
root 1818 1 0 08:18 tty4 00:00:00 /sbin/minget
root 1820 1 0 08:18 tty5 00:00:00 /sbin/minget
root 1822 1 0 08:18 tty6 00:00:00 /sbin/minget
root 1823 1626 0 08:19 ? 00:00:00 sshd: root@p
root 1826 1823 0 08:19 pts/0 00:00:00 -bash
postfix 12894 1733 0 11:38 ? 00:00:00 pickup -l -t
root 12929 1826 0 11:50 pts/0 00:00:00 ps -ef
[root@localhost ~]#
常用组合选项3:-eFH
-F:显示额外信息
-H:以层级形式显示进程间关系

自定义查看需要显示的信息:o,通常使用axo
示例:
ps axo pid ,command,psr,pri,ni
psr:当前进程运行的cpu编号
pri:当前进程的优先级
ni:当前进程的nice值
-20,19
[root@localhost ~]# ps -eFH
UID PID PPID C SZ RSS PSR STIME TTY TIME CMD
root 2 0 0 0 0 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [kthreadd]
root 3 2 0 0 0 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [migration/0]
root 4 2 0 0 0 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [ksoftirqd/0]
root 5 2 0 0 0 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [stopper/0]
root 6 2 0 0 0 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [watchdog/0]
root 7 2 0 0 0 0 08:18 ? 00:00:12 [events/0]
root 8 2 0 0 0 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [cgroup]
root 9 2 0 0 0 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [khelper]
root 10 2 0 0 0 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [netns]
root 11 2 0 0 0 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [async/mgr]
root 12 2 0 0 0 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [pm]
root 13 2 0 0 0 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [sync_supers]
root 14 2 0 0 0 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [bdi-default]
root 15 2 0 0 0 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [kintegrityd/0]
root 16 2 0 0 0 0 08:18 ? 00:00:11 [kblockd/0]
root 17 2 0 0 0 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [kacpid]
root 18 2 0 0 0 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [kacpi_notify]
root 19 2 0 0 0 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [kacpi_hotplug]
root 20 2 0 0 0 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [ata_aux]
root 21 2 0 0 0 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [ata_sff/0]
root 22 2 0 0 0 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [ksuspend_usbd]
root 23 2 0 0 0 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [khubd]
root 24 2 0 0 0 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [kseriod]
root 25 2 0 0 0 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [md/0]
root 26 2 0 0 0 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [md_misc/0]
root 27 2 0 0 0 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [linkwatch]
root 29 2 0 0 0 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [khungtaskd]
root 30 2 0 0 0 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [kswapd0]
root 31 2 0 0 0 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [ksmd]
root 32 2 0 0 0 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [aio/0]
root 33 2 0 0 0 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [crypto/0]
root 41 2 0 0 0 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [kthrotld/0]
root 42 2 0 0 0 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [pciehpd]
root 44 2 0 0 0 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [kpsmoused]
root 45 2 0 0 0 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [usbhid_resumer]
root 46 2 0 0 0 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [deferwq]
root 78 2 0 0 0 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [kdmremove]
root 79 2 0 0 0 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [kstriped]
root 153 2 0 0 0 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [scsi_eh_0]
root 154 2 0 0 0 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [scsi_eh_1]
root 162 2 0 0 0 0 08:18 ? 00:00:02 [mpt_poll_0]
root 163 2 0 0 0 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [mpt/0]
root 164 2 0 0 0 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [scsi_eh_2]
root 301 2 0 0 0 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [kdmflush]
root 303 2 0 0 0 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [kdmflush]
root 320 2 0 0 0 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [jbd2/dm-0-8]
root 321 2 0 0 0 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [ext4-dio-unwrit]
root 808 2 0 0 0 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [bluetooth]
root 815 2 0 0 0 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [vmmemctl]
root 895 2 0 0 0 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [kdmflush]
root 897 2 0 0 0 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [kdmflush]
root 954 2 0 0 0 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [jbd2/sda1-8]
root 955 2 0 0 0 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [ext4-dio-unwrit]
root 956 2 0 0 0 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [jbd2/dm-2-8]
root 957 2 0 0 0 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [ext4-dio-unwrit]
root 958 2 0 0 0 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [jbd2/dm-3-8]
root 959 2 0 0 0 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [ext4-dio-unwrit]
root 1004 2 0 0 0 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [kauditd]
root 1019 2 0 0 0 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [flush-253:3]
root 1675 2 0 0 0 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 [krfcommd]
root 1 0 0 4839 1540 0 08:18 ? 00:00:01 /sbin/init
root 406 1 0 2782 1244 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 /sbin/udevd -d
root 882 406 0 2782 1260 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 /sbin/udevd -d
root 883 406 0 2782 1260 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 /sbin/udevd -d
root 1246 1 0 6899 824 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 auditd
root 1276 1 0 62274 1652 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 /sbin/rsyslogd -i /var/run/syslogd.pid -c 5
rpc 1321 1 0 4744 900 0 08:18 ? 00:00:02 rpcbind
dbus 1352 1 0 5395 1172 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 dbus-daemon --system
root 1363 1 0 43270 4684 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 NetworkManager --pid-file=/var/run/NetworkManager/NetworkManager.pid
root 1416 1363 0 2280 1568 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 /sbin/dhclient -d -4 -sf /usr/libexec/nm-dhcp-client.action -pf /var/run/dhclient
root 1368 1 0 14534 2456 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 /usr/sbin/modem-manager
rpcuser 1384 1 0 5837 1372 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 rpc.statd
root 1421 1 0 47352 3780 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 cupsd -C /etc/cups/cupsd.conf
root 1422 1 0 11247 672 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 /usr/sbin/wpa_supplicant -c /etc/wpa_supplicant/wpa_supplicant.conf -B -u -f /var/l
root 1451 1 0 1020 652 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 /usr/sbin/acpid
68 1461 1 0 9796 5488 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 hald
root 1462 1461 0 5100 1168 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 hald-runner
root 1497 1462 0 5628 1076 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 /usr/libexec/hald-addon-rfkill-killswitch
root 1515 1462 0 5630 1080 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 hald-addon-input: Listening on /dev/input/event2 /dev/input/event0
68 1533 1462 0 4502 1028 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 hald-addon-acpi: listening on acpid socket /var/run/acpid.socket
root 1564 1 0 96533 1912 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 automount --pid-file /var/run/autofs.pid
root 1593 1 0 6197 1852 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 /usr/sbin/bluetoothd --udev
root 1626 1 0 16672 1272 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 /usr/sbin/sshd
root 1823 1626 0 25112 4464 0 08:19 ? 00:00:00 sshd: root@pts/0
root 1826 1823 0 27085 1828 0 08:19 pts/0 00:00:00 -bash
root 12934 1826 1 27587 1104 0 11:52 pts/0 00:00:00 ps -eFH
root 1733 1 0 20332 3856 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 /usr/libexec/postfix/master
postfix 1758 1733 0 20398 3868 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 qmgr -l -t fifo -u
postfix 12894 1733 0 20352 3828 0 11:38 ? 00:00:00 pickup -l -t fifo -u
root 1759 1 0 28661 1124 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 /usr/sbin/abrtd
root 1772 1 0 29333 1272 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 crond
root 1786 1 0 5394 512 0 08:18 ? 00:00:00 /usr/sbin/atd
root 1812 1 0 1016 536 0 08:18 tty1 00:00:00 /sbin/mingetty /dev/tty1
root 1814 1 0 1016 544 0 08:18 tty2 00:00:00 /sbin/mingetty /dev/tty2
root 1816 1 0 1016 540 0 08:18 tty3 00:00:00 /sbin/mingetty /dev/tty3
root 1818 1 0 1016 540 0 08:18 tty4 00:00:00 /sbin/mingetty /dev/tty4
root 1820 1 0 1016 544 0 08:18 tty5 00:00:00 /sbin/mingetty /dev/tty5
root 1822 1 0 1016 544 0 08:18 tty6 00:00:00 /sbin/mingetty /dev/tty6
[root@localhost ~]#
pgrep:
-u 用户
-g 组
-l id号和进程名
[root@localhost ~]# pgrep "bash"
1826
[root@localhost ~]#
[root@localhost ~]# pgrep -u root
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
29
30
31
32
[root@localhost ~]# pgrep -l -u root
1 init
2 kthreadd
3 migration/0
4 ksoftirqd/0
5 stopper/0
6 watchdog/0
7 events/0
8 cgroup
9 khelper
10 netns
11 async/mgr
12 pm
13 sync_supers
14 bdi-default
15 kintegrityd/0
16 kblockd/0
17 kacpid
18 kacpi_notify
19 kacpi_hotplug
20 ata_aux
21 ata_sff/0
22 ksuspend_usbd
23 khubd
24 kseriod
25 md/0
26 md_misc/0
27 linkwatch
29 khungtaskd
30 kswapd0
31 ksmd
32 aio/0
33 crypto/0
41 kthrotld/0
42 pciehpd
44 kpsmoused
45 usbhid_resumer
46 deferwq
78 kdmremove
79 kstriped
153 scsi_eh_0
154 scsi_eh_1
162 mpt_poll_0
163 mpt/0
164 scsi_eh_2
301 kdmflush
303 kdmflush
320 jbd2/dm-0-8
321 ext4-dio-unwrit
406 udevd
808 bluetooth
815 vmmemctl
882 udevd
883 udevd
895 kdmflush
897 kdmflush
954 jbd2/sda1-8
955 ext4-dio-unwrit
956 jbd2/dm-2-8
957 ext4-dio-unwrit
958 jbd2/dm-3-8
959 ext4-dio-unwrit
1004 kauditd
1019 flush-253:3
1246 auditd
1276 rsyslogd
1363 NetworkManager
1368 modem-manager
1416 dhclient
1421 cupsd
1422 wpa_supplicant
1451 acpid
1462 hald-runner
1497 hald-addon-rfki
1515 hald-addon-inpu
1564 automount
1593 bluetoothd
1626 sshd
1675 krfcommd
1733 master
1759 abrtd
1772 crond
1786 atd
1812 mingetty
1814 mingetty
1816 mingetty
1818 mingetty
1820 mingetty
1822 mingetty
1823 sshd
1826 bash
12950 flush-253:2
[root@localhost ~]# pi
pidof

pidof 命令行程序
[root@localhost ~]# pidof /bin/bash
1826
[root@localhost ~]#
top命令:
有许多交互式的子命令:
p:以占据的cpu百分比大小排序;
M:以占据memory空间大小排序
T:cpu累计占用时间排序

l:是否显示系统负载行
队列长度的合理时间:cpu颗数*0.7
t:是否显示进程摘要信息及cpu负载状态

[root@localhost ~]# top
top - 12:04:14 up 3:46, 1 user, load average: 0.02, 0.01, 0.00
Tasks: 99 total, 1 running, 98 sleeping, 0 stopped, 0 zombie
Cpu(s): 0.3%us, 0.3%sy, 0.0%ni, 99.3%id, 0.0%wa, 0.0%hi, 0.0%si, 0.0%st
Mem: 494164k total, 430180k used, 63984k free, 28432k buffers
Swap: 2097148k total, 0k used, 2097148k free, 315536k cached

PID USER PR NI VIRT RES SHR S %CPU %MEM TIME+ COMMAND
1 root 20 0 19356 1540 1224 S 0.0 0.3 0:01.22 init
2 root 20 0 0 0 0 S 0.0 0.0 0:00.00 kthreadd
3 root RT 0 0 0 0 S 0.0 0.0 0:00.00 migration/0
4 root 20 0 0 0 0 S 0.0 0.0 0:00.03 ksoftirqd/0
5 root RT 0 0 0 0 S 0.0 0.0 0:00.00 stopper/0
6 root RT 0 0 0 0 S 0.0 0.0 0:00.69 watchdog/0
7 root 20 0 0 0 0 S 0.0 0.0 0:13.15 events/0
8 root 20 0 0 0 0 S 0.0 0.0 0:00.00 cgroup
9 root 20 0 0 0 0 S 0.0 0.0 0:00.00 khelper
10 root 20 0 0 0 0 S 0.0 0.0 0:00.00 netns
11 root 20 0 0 0 0 S 0.0 0.0 0:00.00 async/mgr
12 root 20 0 0 0 0 S 0.0 0.0 0:00.00 pm
13 root 20 0 0 0 0 S 0.0 0.0 0:00.54 sync_supers
14 root 20 0 0 0 0 S 0.0 0.0 0:00.10 bdi-default
15 root 20 0 0 0 0 S 0.0 0.0 0:00.00 kintegrityd/0
16 root 20 0 0 0 0 S 0.0 0.0 0:12.00 kblockd/0
17 root 20 0 0 0 0 S 0.0 0.0 0:00.00 kacpid
18 root 20 0 0 0 0 S 0.0 0.0 0:00.00 kacpi_notify
19 root 20 0 0 0 0 S 0.0 0.0 0:00.00 kacpi_hotplug
20 root 20 0 0 0 0 S 0.0 0.0 0:00.00 ata_aux
21 root 20 0 0 0 0 S 0.0 0.0 0:00.00 ata_sff/0
22 root 20 0 0 0 0 S 0.0 0.0 0:00.00 ksuspend_usbd

top--译

[root@localhost ~]# top
top - 12:04:14 当前系统时间
up 3:46, 运行时长
1 user, 当前系统登录的用户个数
load average: 0.02, 0.01, 0.00
平均负载,当前系统上cpu队列等待长度
0.02, 过去一份钟
0.01, 过去5分钟
队列长度的合理区间:cpu颗数*0.7

Tasks: 99 total, 1 running, 98 sleeping, 0 stopped, 0 zombie
tasks:一共
99 total:99个停止
Cpu(s): 0.3%us, 0.3%sy, 0.0%ni, 99.3%id, 0.0%wa, 0.0%hi, 0.0%si, 0.0%st

us:user space
sy:system(kernel space)
ni:nice
id:idle
wa:wai io
hi:hardware interrupt
si:software interrupt
st:stolen,被虚拟化”偷走“的百分比
Mem: 494164k total, 430180k used, 63984k free, 28432k buffers
Swap: 2097148k total, 0k used, 2097148k free, 315536k cached

内存占用信息:m命令开启关闭

m: 显示关闭内存信息
1,平均或单独显示cpu的负载状态
s:修改刷新时间间隔
k: 终止指定进程

top命令选项:
[root@localhost ~]# top -b
b:batch,批次显示

[root@localhost ~]# top -b -n 2
-n 数字:显示的批次数

[root@localhost ~]# top -d 2
-d:指明延迟时长

和ps介绍一致!
PID USER
PR 优先级
NI
VIRT
RES
SHR
S
%CPU
%MEM
TIME+
COMMAND
uptime:显示当前系统时间,运行时长,登录用户数及系统平均负载
[root@localhost ~]# uptime
12:11:56 up 3:53, 1 user, load average: 0.00, 0.00, 0.00
[root@localhost ~]#

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日期: 2015-04-15分类: Sys Basics

标签: none

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